By Richard M. Phelan

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Generally, the frequency of the ladder program execution depends to a large extent on the length and complexity of the ladder program. Add more rungs and the scan time will lengthen; this can cause problems when designing systems that need to respond within a guaranteed period. For example, consider a requirement of a PLC system to control a plastics extrusion machine. The PLC may need to control motor drives for handling the plastics feed screw and extrudate haul-off, while at the same time controlling mechanical interlocks and operator displays and managing the delivery of plastics feedstock.

This means that the PLC program station should be able to detect when a programmer erroneously attempts to write the wrong type of data to a variable. For example, assigning the value 1 as a bit, to a memory location designated to receive the value of a time duration as 1 second, would be detected as an error before the program is down-loaded into the PLC. This will remove a major source of programming errors in conventional PLC ladder programs. 3. e. there is support for full execution control.

For example, a function cannot call itself within the code of its own declaration. This is clearly because recursive software is difficult to test and its real-time performance is not predictable. e. Structured Text, Ladder Diagram, Function Block Diagram, Instruction List or Sequential Function Chart. As functions have no retained state information they can be programmed in all languages except Sequential Function Chart. 46 Programming industrial control systems using IEC1131-3 Hierarchical design One of the great strengths of the E C 1131-3 standard is the strong emphasis on hierarchical design.

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Automatic Control Systems by Richard M. Phelan
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