By Wolfgang Braun

The booklet describes RHEED (reflection high-energy electron diffraction) used as a device for crystal progress. New tools utilizing RHEED to represent surfaces and interfaces in the course of crystal progress by means of MBE (molecular beam epitaxy) are awarded. particular emphasis is wear RHEED depth oscillations, segregation phenomena, electron energy-loss spectroscopy and RHEED with rotating substrates.

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Extra resources for Applied RHEED: Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction During Crystal Growth

Example text

This transfer function is useful for assessing the surface properties that can be represented in a RHEED pattern. Since T(k) can be approximated by a Gaussian function, so can t(r). The transfer function represents a window of width tw, the transfer width [121]. The information contained in RHEED is therefore random and average in character, with a limited detectable correlation length determined by the instrument response. 22) ht where ht is the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the reflection, and a• and g• represent the real and reciprocal surface lattice constants parallel to the screen.

2 Theoretical Models 41 10 25 Fig. 11. The phase difference A~ of the top-layer interference model as a function of layer thickness d and crystal potential V1 for an incidence angle of 1~ tron energy of 20 keV. The left-hand edge of the diagram, V1 = 0, corresponds to the kinematical case, with a linear dependence of A~ on d. Increasing the potential to the right, one can clearly see that the phase difference due to the top-layer potential can assume large values. Dynamical calculations for GaAs generally use bulk potential values between 13 and 14 V [106].

This also causes the monotonic increase of the curve in Fig. 8a. This effect is not very realistic as it would correspond to either needle-like protrusions or narrow holes in the surface for the usually assumed solid-on-solid model, where no overhangs or vacancies are allowed. The model is also not very accurate in modeling the damping of the oscillations, since it does not describe the distribution of the atoms within any given layer and therefore contains very limited information about the surface morphology.

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Applied RHEED: Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction by Wolfgang Braun
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