By Isaiah Berlin

Isaiah Berlin. opposed to the present: Essays within the background of principles. Viking Press, 1980. 448. ISBN: 0-670-10944-4 pages

Book Description
In this impressive selection of essays, Isaiah Berlin, one of many nice thinkers of the 20 th century, discusses the significance within the background of considered dissenters whose rules nonetheless problem traditional wisdom--among them Machiavelli, Vico, Montesquieu, Herzen, and Sorel. together with his strange powers of imaginitive new edition, Berlin brings to existence unique minds that swam opposed to the present in their times.

Editorial Reviews
Isaiah Berlin used to be the main esteemed highbrow determine within the English-speaking global. opposed to the present could be the such a lot consultant of [his] books. (Mark Feeney Boston Globe )
A historian of principles, [Berlin] has no equivalent; and what he has to claim is expressed in prose of outstanding lucidity and style. (Anthony Storr autonomous on Sunday )
Berlin expounds the guidelines of half-forgotten thinkers with luminous readability and ingenious empathy.... exhilarating to learn. (Keith Thomas Observer )
A so much impressive highbrow fulfillment. There are few books released in our time which extra dazzlingly remove darkness from probably the most the most important difficulties of western tradition and civilisation. (Goronwy Rees Encounter).

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They are populism, or the belief that men can realise themselves fully only when they belong to an identifiable group or culture with roots in tradition, language, custom, common historical memories y expressionism, or the notion that all men's works 'are above all voices speaking', forms of expression or communication which convey a total view or vision of life ; and finally pluralism, the recognition of a potentially infinite variety of cultures and systems of values, all equally ultimate and incommensurable with one another, rendering logically incoherent the belief in a universally valid, ideal path to human fulfilment sought with varying degrees of success by all men at all places and times.

T o be made an object of contempt, amused condescension, or patronising tolerance by proud, successful and powerful neighbours, Berlin tells us, 'is one of the most traumatic experiences that individuals or societies can suffer7. T h e exaggerated and at times pathological response on the part of those whose dignity is insulted is to raise up their own real or imaginary virtues against those of their tormentors. T h e Germans, unable to look back on a long tradition of military, economic and political dominance, or to point to a succession of high achievements in art, literature and science, discovered in themselves superior moral and spiritual depth, a noble and selfless love of truth and the inner life of the spirit, which they contrasted with the hedonistic, worldly, superficial and morally empty French.

For him the newly liberated Jews of the late eighteenth and the nineteenth centuries offer a kind of paradigm case. Escaping as many of them did from the narrow, familiar, self-enclosed world of the ghetto into the wider, freer, more exciting but stranger and more dangerous gentile world, their identity was suddenly called in question. Who were they? Some among them — the more pliable and easy-going — shed their past with no apparent trouble and merged unobtrusively into their new environment ; others — those whose very sense of self, intimately bound up with their passionate desire to do and be something in the world, would not allow them to forget their origins could not perform this act of facile self-transformation.

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Against the Current: Essays in the History of Ideas by Isaiah Berlin
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