By John B. Saunders et al.

Substance use and similar addictive problems price among the head 4 hazard components contributing to the worldwide burden of disorder and shape an more and more very important a part of scientific and healthcare perform. Substance use problems could cause, mimic, underlie or complicate quite a few universal clinical and psychiatric issues. creating a right prognosis of the substance use affliction can facilitate medical prognosis, stay away from pointless exams, shorten health center remain and make the clinician and patient's lifestyles more straightforward and safer.

Part of the profitable Oxford professional Handbooks sequence, the second one version of Addiction Medicine is a concise and useful consultant for college students, practitioners of medication and different health and wellbeing professions who come into touch with individuals with substance use issues. offering up to date useful evaluation, analysis, therapy and administration strategies, this variation expands at the first version via up to date content material and worldwide assurance of habit medicine.

Edited by way of an international workforce of skilled psychiatrists really expert in addictions, Addiction medication, moment edition comprises every little thing you want to be aware of to help within the review, prognosis and scientific administration of sufferers with substance use and comparable addictive disorders.

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Use versus problematic use Not all drug use causes harm to users. Efforts have been made on an international level to classify the behaviours or symptoms associated with use that does cause problems to the user. This problematic use is the target for most interventions. Epidemiology of substance use The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) distinguishes between ‘harmful drug use’ and ‘drug dependence’. g. g. drug-​induced psychosis). • In ICD ​10, drug dependence requires the presence of three or more of the following: a strong desire to take the substance; impaired control over the use; a withdrawal syndrome on ceasing or reducing use; tolerance to the effects of the drug; requiring larger doses to achieve the desired psychological effect; a disproportionate amount of the user’s time is spent obtaining, using, and recovering from drug use; and the user continuing to take the drug(s) despite associated problems (see p.

Nicotine receptor sites occur throughout the brain. Neuronal nicotinic receptors have acetylcholine as their natural ligand on the α4β2 subunit. Nicotine is a potent agonist at these subunit sites (and possibly others). • After interacting with these receptors, nicotine facilitates neurotransmission involving multiple neurotransmitters and local hormones such as dopamine, serotonin, β-endorphin, noradrenaline, vasopressin, acetylcholine, and many others. When this occurs at sites such as the hippocampus and nucleus accumbens, mood, memory, and cognitive ability may be enhanced.

Those at highest risk of developing dependence initiate in their early teens, have a history of poor academic achievement, deviant behaviour in childhood and adolescence, non-​conformity and rebelliousness, poor parental relationships, and a parental history of drug and alcohol problems. There is increasing evidence of a substantial genetic contribution to the likelihood of using and developing dependence upon cannabis. Psychostimulants: ATS and cocaine The term ‘amphetamine type stimulants’ refers to a range of drugs related to amphetamine which share stimulant properties that increase the activity of the CNS and produce effects similar to adrenalin.

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Addiction medicine by John B. Saunders et al.
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