By Andrea Megela Simmons (auth.), Andrea Megela Simmons, Richard R. Fay, Arthur N. Popper (eds.)
In order to speak, animals ship and obtain indications which are topic to their specific anatomical, mental, and environmental constraints. This SHAR quantity discusses either the construction and belief of acoustic signs. Chapters deal with the knowledge that animals speak, how the conversation is constructed and realized, and the way communique platforms have tailored and advanced inside of species. The ebook will provide examples from quite a few species.
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Extra info for Acoustic Communication
1995; Premus and Spiesberger 1997). These propagation phenomena are being exploited by acoustical oceanographers, but whether whales actually take advantage of the information available from these propagation modes remains to be determined. , intertidal and subtidal zones, lakes, and ﬂood plains) with water depths <5 m. In this environment, the same physical constraints apply as in the 10–100-m case, but the effects on propagation do not result in a waveguide. Under these very shallow water conditions, low-frequency propagation within the water column is restricted to distances of several times the water depth.
3. Wavelength Dependency of Near- and Far-Field Range Because the amplitude of particle motion in the local ﬂow region of the near and intermediate ﬁelds decreases much faster than that of the propagating sound wave (see above), the latter comes to dominate the spread of acoustic energy as distance from the source increases for either a monopole or a dipole source. The change in strength of the local ﬂow and propagating sound wave with increasing source distance is wavelengthdependent (see Fig.
W. , Clark 1982; Tyack 1983; Dahlheim et al. 1984; Clark et al. 1986; Silber 1986). There have been a few observations of blue and ﬁn whales in surface-active groups with associated recordings of transient sounds (Watkins 1981; Watkins et al. 1987; Edds 1988). Transient signals from coastal species are highly variable in their acoustic structures. In contrast, transient signals from at least three of the pelagic species are much simpler and share common acoustic attributes. Contact calls from right and bowhead whales are simple, frequency-modulated sweeps, whereas feeding calls from humpbacks, which serve to attract distant whales to the aggregation, are long, constant-frequency sirens.
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