By Arthur Pehr Robert Wadlund

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Since the transition temperatures of the pure metals used are defined by the ITS-90, the blackbody radiance temperature is known if the material is not contaminated by impurities and other experimental conditions are met. 33 K to define the radiance scale [38]. A new, independent method to 32 Optical Radiometry for Ocean Climate Measurements determine the blackbody temperature, described in [39], uses filter radiometers, previously calibrated on a detector-based responsivity scale with values traceable to the electrical watt and the meter rather than the kelvin, to directly measure the radiance in a known bandwidth and deduce the temperature from Planck’s equation [40,41].

Diffuse reflectance standards can be used to establish scales of spectral reflectance, with a spectroradiometer performing as a reflectometer. This technique is employed in establishment of scales of spectral reflectance on samples at user facilities using a diffuse reflectance standard calibrated by a standards laboratory, see, for example, [65]. In SR remote sensing, the Sun is the source. Measurements from orbit determine the spectral radiance or reflectance of the Earth using an on-board diffuse reflectance standards, see, for example, [66,67].

0025% [27]. A comparison of apertures with heritage to TSI instruments revealed that the uncertainty in aperture area is a function of the quality of the edge, the flatness of the aperture, and the ability to mount it in the plane with the moving stages [28]. A final point regarding apertures, whether they are flux limiting, field-of-view limiting, or nonlimiting baffles, is the edge beveldthe slanted surface on the inner diameter connecting the main body of the aperture structure to the optical edge.

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Absolute X-Ray Wave-Length Measurements by Arthur Pehr Robert Wadlund
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